The European society exploration and conquest that occurred between 1540 and 1650 also contribute, immensely, to this study. The fourth and most recent area explored in the study of European society’s contribution to international relations or politics is the iconic age of globalization that Europe experienced since 1980. These four notable historic periods in the study of European societies contribute, in divergent ways, to international relations or politics in the contemporary world.The spread of Islam was a notable occurrence during the early middle age in Europe (Izzatī Ezzati 2002, p.153). The Bedouins used camels and horses as their main mode of transport. The creed that the holders of Islam’s beliefs embraced had contributed to the social unity of the greater Arab tribes on a global scale. The different religious rituals and rules were sources of the union. The Christian-Muslim relations and its contribution to international relations were evident in Europe during the early middle age. The civil wars that occurred among the descendants of al-Rahman saw the weakening of the caliphate (Parsons 2010, p.102), for instance. The northern Spain Christian kingdoms, therefore, reigned and expanded to the south because of the weakening of the caliphate. This changed the relations between the Muslims and the Christians in Spain. The emergence of the Frankish rulers occurred at this time in history. This had a considerable bearing on the present political set up of the contemporary world. The Frankish kingdom consisted of what, presently, constitutes France and a portion of Germany to the southwestern part. The Merovingian was notable for providing women opportunities in political leadership. The provision of leadership to women shaped their role in political leadership, in the contemporary world. The early medieval culture also cropped up during the early middle age in Europe.