Recommendation Essay: Emergency Response Challenges in Natural DisastersThe[WLB1] emergency response is an immediate priority after natural disasters to provide emergency first aid and medical services to injured persons as a way of mitigating the effect of the hazardous event on people and the environment. Arranging for housing, food, water, and medications precedes the top priority of searching-and-rescuing as well as lifesaving medical triage. Natural disasters and multifaceted emergencies such as earthquakes, droughts, floods, snowstorms, and frost waves pose weighty effects on the household food security and nutrition status of affected population groups (De Haen, and [WLB2]Hemrich). The natural disasters emergency response faces a major challenge of food insecurity. Even without natural disasters, more than 800,000 million people are food insecure globally (FAO). The Office of Management and Budget in collaboration with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) aims at ensuring that emergency management incorporates the right systems to augment crisis preparedness, response, and effects management of manmade and natural disasters (Lipton, and Saghai). In this recommendation essay, the paper will focus on explaining the food insecurity problem that challenges emergency response in natural disaster events and proposing solutions to an issue.[WLB3] It assesses possible solutions’ logic before recommending them to the agencies involved in food security such as the FAO, IFAD, WHO, and WFP. Before providing the recommendation to the issue, the essay will provide an in-depth examination of the problem and possible solutions. (Jafarzadeh, JD)The specific problem, circumstances and the consequencesIn 1996, the World Food Summit defined food security, at all levels, as the time when all people can physically and economically access “sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary desires and preferences in order to sustain healthy life (Ditlevsen, et al.). Food insecurity occurs when households or individuals fail to get adequate physical, social, or economic access to food. After shelter, the most important thing we humans need for survival is food and that’s where every disaster hits hard on everyone. The consequences of natural disasters such as the destruction of the food systems cannot be ignored.In the present context, the existing disaster prevention, be it natural or man-made, mitigation plans do not seem to be satisfactory considering the challenges being faced by all of us during the event of COVID-19 outbreak[WLB4]. Momentarily, human society faces this coronavirus pandemic that has crippled major frameworks. People and the country as a whole have been harshly affected by the aftermath of this and such natural disasters. Natural and manmade disasters can significantly disrupt domestic small-scale food production and international supply chains which affects the large-scale food sector due to a ban on international trade and distribution.[WLB5] An example of a natural disaster that created enormous food insecurity is the floods and landslides which affected 35 districts in Nepal (World Food Programme). The Nepal Food Security Monitoring System (NeKSAP) found over 900,000 people as food insecure persons[WLB6].[WLB7]Natural disasters affect food security both directly and indirectly. The WFP, FAO, and other agencies observed and assert that after the natural disaster peoples are affected by food insecurity, either simply because the food is unavailable, or inaccessible or simply because the consumption patterns are adversely clogged (Ditlevsen et al.) Food insecurity could arise from climate changes relating to hazards and unique ecosystems. Adverse conditions impact on the agricultural activities which consequently affects the market access, food supply, trade, decreased employment, lower individual and farm income, and increased food prices. Natural disasters disorient crops or food distribution centers within affected areas such that it affects the availability and accessibility of food. These amid the already weakening financial and economic resources, leaves impoverished communities with little, if any, access to any healthy foods[WLB8].The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) explains that the extremely negative effects of natural hazards and disasters on food security are the very foundation of this recommendation essay. The governing policies that disaster preparedness and emergency management organizations pin their motives (FAO). [WLB9]These institutions aim at enhancing the mainstream of disaster risk reduction and resilience building within the food system. The agricultural sectors are at the epitome of food security. Resilience enables the agencies to protect, restore, and improve food and agricultural systems that affect the security of food, safety, nutrition, and health. [WLB10]It is no wonder that poor communities that already were facing food insecurity find the problem only amplified in the event of a natural disaster.Audience AppealsThe Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Food Programme (WFP), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), and the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as the Red Crescent amongst other institutions actively engage in emergency response when a natural disaster occurs.  These audiences understand the situation on the ground and the limitations as well as the needs of the affected individuals. In collaboration with each other, these agencies engage in emergency response and disaster preparedness processes to safeguard different aspects. Food insecurity is one of their second priorities in the strike of a disaster.Food insecurity is an extremely stressful event that challenges the physical, mental and psychological health of the affected individuals. While it may seem hardly possible to appeal to the emotions of these organizations, emotional appeals can be used to persuade these institutions that focus on the public reputation and service. Most by natural and human-made hazards trigger or exacerbate the food insecurity system. In the event that disaster strikes, these institutions need to approach the emergency response challenges with an excellent plan. The short and long-term food insecurity causes a lot of suffering, frustration, and trauma for the victims. Food insecurity creates overwhelming or toxic stress that can emotionally and psychologically affect the people (Dalli).  [WLB11]Imagine of parents or children altogether in an affected area, who have to go hungry through a day or days because of not only the disaster but also because the respective institutions lacked an ideal program and policy to provide for food sustenance. In this COVID-19 pandemic, for instance, individuals and families are struggling with coping up with insufficient food at the expense of health issues. It is significant that the organizations consider the proposed recommendation as an ideal way to shield the society from food-insecurity which is guilty of challenges such as hunger, tiredness, pain, worry, sadness, anger and poor conditions (Choi)Ethos appeal is founded on grounds of generally accepted morals or ethics thus instigating the need to do the “right” thing. Thus, dDuring a natural disaster emergency response, most households suffer significantly from food insecurity. Initiating strategic intervention policies can help these institutions to morally do the right thing in such circumstances. The Famine and Early Warning System (FEWS) livelihood context, the Emergency Food Security Assessment Framework of the World Food Program and FAO in service of the community seeks to mitigate the impacts of any shock or yearly sequences of food insecurity. Intervening for the affected is an empathetic and moral stance that the institutions stand by in their vision[WLB12]. According to Killingsworth[WLB13], the common good approach instigates that the institutions should act on the policies that are more oriented towards the benefit of society as a whole. According to Rockwell Jr. & Block, the Katrina Hurricane caused massive destruction, loss of life and distortion of trade amounting to billions of losses., The New Orleans Food Policy Advisory Committee was a product of such a calamity which dealt with the food security challenges affecting the locals after the earthquake in 2009. This was in a bid to prevent and ensure that the overall health of those individuals that were affected is restored and they live productive lives. Therefore, the organizations need to consider the moral perspective [WLB14]in their ability to serve the community based on the proposed solutions and recommendations. From a logical perspective, there is undisputed logical proof and rational appeal that can explain the impact of food insecurity on emergency response phases. Haen and Hemrich discuss the adverse effects of natural disasters and how they damage the food systems threatening its security globally. The United Nations depicts that the 2015 natural disasters cost the agricultural sectors tremendously with a confounding $96 billion in damages for both productions of crop and livestock. The food production system and the agriculture sector absorbs 85% of all drought-triggered economic damages (UN-Water). While the FAO estimates that more than 2 billion persons lack access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food, 80% of these food-insecure people reside in disaster-prone areas. [WLB15]Beating the level of food insecurity will then necessitate that the agencies adopt unique strategies and solutions that excellently intervene against this challenge that emergency response teams’ experiences during disaster events. Evidence from different pieces of literature notes that the population in need of emergency food assistance in 2017 dropped significantly in tribute to the policies and strategies adopted (The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)). The vulnerability of victims of natural disasters to food security is an aspect that exposes them to further shocks and livelihood threats.[WLB16]Claim and PurposeThe consequences of natural disasters such as the destruction of the food systems have caused tremendous destruction to people across the globe. Food security measures and infrastructure development are critical when tackling the consequences of natural disasters. Food insecurity challenges the emergency response procedure and instigates that these agencies should engage in activities and strategies that boost their disaster preparedness. Jafarzadeh discusses the role of strengthening disaster preparedness for a successful reaction at all levels. The purpose of the study, therefore, is to identify the food insecurity that affects individuals during the emergency response in the case of natural disasters and outlining alternative solutions to the challenge and be prepared for the next disaster if any[WLB17].Proposed Solution and its negative and positive consequences.The vulnerability and poor livelihoods that are initiated in the event of a natural disaster create significant food insecurity which poses a challenge to the emergency response system and teams. Emergency response units in close operation with food security programmers have thus been pushed to work towards realistic and easy to implement resolutions. Based on different assessments, I arrived at an excellent solution that exists in three phases to help the emergency response tackle or contain the food system insecurity whilst developing risk intervention strategies. The proposed solution is the approximate dynamic programming tactic to food security which significantly improves the food security of societies affected by the occurrence of natural disasters. The model aims at strengthening the ability of the community or household too; first, prevent a negative event or shock in the food system; secondly, mitigate the impacts of a shock that might occur; and lastly, cope with the situation after occurrence(Choi) [WLB18]The proposed solution instigates three variables that are most important. First, the model incorporates affordability concerns about any households’ ability to buy food from vendors. On the other hand, accessibility as the second component infers if households can physically access food retail stores that highly rely on the infrastructure and transportation networks. The last constituent is availability concerns of the food distribution infrastructure’s channels such as the consumers, wholesalers, and retailers.The implications of this solution are vital in this essay. The three dimensions decipher how household food security and infrastructure interact to impact on food accessibility, availability, and affordability. The approximate dynamic programming tactic impacts the aforesaid agencies’ ability to contain the situation. The model allows for the implementation of prevention, mitigation, and coping strategies that further makes it easy to access, afford, and make available the food for the people.First, the approach allows the agencies as well as the community to reduce the triggers that would cause adverse events. This incorporates long-term development approaches in the bid to alter the disaster readiness for the best. The model’s accessibility constituents would help the community affected by the disaster to improve its infrastructures like roads, storage facilities, irrigation systems, and markets that have direct impacts on the accessibility of available food at the time of natural disaster (Choi). This approach improves human capital help in wavering food insecurity. It also takes advantage of chances to adopt existing technology and adjusts policies and procedures to excellently improve on disaster management and situation recovery.The second benefit is that the approach helps in mitigating the probable effects of the hazardous event. The mitigation strategies developed in this system are highly diverse and create significant income for households to respond to the situation amid the emergency response from the agencies. Improving affordability would allow the households to increase their incomes or develop secure income generating sources to allow them to buy foods in the event of natural disasters like the COVID-19, climate adversity, among others that affect their own household production. For instance, this tactic suggests that a famine-prone area should plant drought-resistant crops to minimize the shortfall within a household during a low rainfall period. The tactic therefore as an ex-ante, can be implemented in anticipation of such disaster in the future to prevent and mitigate the adverse food insecurity in the affected community. Another effect is that this solution warranties the ability of the organizations and agencies to induce, review, implement, and signify their disaster mitigation, preparedness, and response systems. Through the ex-post measures (coping strategies), the emergency response teams can apply different mechanisms to reduce the effects of the negative event. Food in most natural disasters is highly unavailable to the affected persons. This solution benefits the individuals by optimizing strategies such as relief, emergency response, or safety nest methods to directly and positively impact in increasing availability and accessibility of food. It also aims at improving the situation recovery as well as preserving individual and community assets to improve food security in the long-term. Therefore, the solution significantly impacts food accessibility, availability, and affordability during the emergency response times in the middle of the disaster period. It is essential in delivering developmental benefits to local markets, farmers, food producers, individual households, and the community at large. With this strategy, the future emergency preparedness efforts of FAO, WFP, UNICEF, WHO among other agencies are excellently improved to enhance food security (Amini Hosseini et al.). The ability to incorporate these different agencies broaden the scope of this solution to handle different related situations. Also, it includes the affected or disaster-prone communities, thus maintaining a high degree of transparency and acceptability of the process. This also makes the solution more likely to back the recommendations. The negative consequence of this strategy is that it is highly dependent on the stipulated procedures and objectives that make it highly inflexible to absorb any alterations and aftermath (5 Essentials For The First 72 Hours Of Disaster Response). The technique might take long to implement, especially during the disaster period because it necessitates the coordination of the many stakeholders, which is problematic. The many stakeholders will necessitate many outlooks that might compromise the approach methodology and disallow the ability of the agencies to properly implement it.RecommendationsThe following are thus the summary of the solution recommendation: The agencies should recognize the presence and efforts of the domestic food producers and focus on strengthening their food systems using the proposed solution. Stress on the essence of creating stronger connections in their source of food production and disaster management. In the bid to improve the ability of the agencies to respond to these disasters, the solution necessitates that they improve their agricultural hazard and food security profiling to comprehend disaster-prone areas and their available resources. The community should be encouraged to develop infrastructure and technologies which would allow them to minimize the impact of adverse or natural calamities on the availability, accessibility, and affordability of food in the area. Systematically leveraging reserves to sustain Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in the food sectors so as to prevent the risks, minimize the impacts, and cope with the food insecurity situation. All these work to progress the already established policies on emergency response and sustainable development programs that will further help in the issue. Through the new proposal, FAO, WFP, and other institutions can attend to the needs of disaster-affected people and offer consistent facilitation and resources for building resilience for the disaster-prone and food insecure communities. The emergency response system should collaborate on the proposed solution with the existing food programs at such adverse circumstances to strengthen domestic capacities to produce timely food support and nutrition response after the natural disaster. The agencies should coordinate to lessen communities’ vulnerability to disaster shocks by creating livelihood assets for the community and households. ConclusionIn summary, FAO’s Framework Program and other institutions have always come in handy when it comes to attending to the emergency that arises from natural disasters. It is dire and opportune to apply the proposed solution recommendations to excellently mainstream and implements the different DRR and emergency response procedures as a way of ensuring food security in the regions (5 Essentials For The First 72 Hours Of Disaster Response). The context in the recommendation paper creates significant information and recommendations that help government officers, field practitioners, and non-governmental organizations to formulate or implement food security measures. With this program, it is possible to attain all these programs to sustain the food security and needs of a community during such periods. There is a great need to advance further research to look at the difference in which these programs can impact on the sustainable development goals and food security[WLB19].Works CitedAnd Challenges For Food Security”.Agricultural Economics, vol 37, 2007, pp. 31-45.Wiley, doi:10.1111/j.1574-0862.2007.00233.x. Accessed 29 Apr 2020.Amini Hosseini, Kambod et al. “A Survey On Evacuation Planning And Its Challenges For Potential Earthquake In Tehran”.International Journal Of Disaster Resilience In The Built Environment, vol 5, no. 1, 2014, pp. 38-52.Emerald, doi:10.1108/ijdrbe-09-2011-0033.Communications”.Journal Of Emergency Management, vol 9, no. 4, 2011, pp. 13-18.Weston Medical Publishing, doi:10.5055/jem.2011.0063. Accessed 29 Apr 2020.Choi, S. (2008). Emergency Management: Implications from a Strategic Management Perspective. Journal Of Homeland Security And Emergency Management, 5(1). DOI: 10.2202/1547-7355.1372Dalli, Kristen. “Food Insecurity May Negatively Affect Learning”. The ASHA Leader, vol 24, no. 6, 2019, pp. 21-21. American Speech Language Hearing Association, doi:10.1044/leader.rib7.24062019.21.Ditlevsen, Kia et al. “Healthy Food Is Nutritious, But Organic Food Is Healthy Because It Is Pure: The Negotiation Of Healthy Food Choices By Danish Consumers Of Organic Food”.Food Quality And Preference, vol 71, 2019, pp. 46-53.Elsevier BV, doi:10.1016/j.foodqual.2018.06.001.De Haen, Hartwig, and Günter Hemrich. “The Economics Of Natural Disasters: Implications FAO. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2015 (with WFP and IFAD). Rome. 2015.Jafarzadeh, JD, R. Sabra. “Emergency Management 2.0: Integrating Social Media In Emergency Lipton, Michael, and Yashar Saghai. “Food Security, Farmland Access Ethics, And Land Reform”.Global Food Security, vol 12, 2017, pp. 59-66.Elsevier BV, doi:10.1016/j.gfs.2016.03.004.Rossimel, Adam et al. “Access And Affordability Of Nutritious Food In Metropolitan Melbourne”.Nutrition & Dietetics, vol 73, no. 1, 2014, pp. 13-18.Wiley, doi:10.1111/1747-0080.12142.United Nations OCHA. “5 Essentials for the first 72 hours of disaster response.” Feb 10, 2017: Web. February 10, 2017. of-disaster-response [WLB1]Begin with a story/anecdote that makes the human connection – that makes the reader relate and curious to know what you’re about to reveal/analyze[WLB2](De Haen and Hemrich)[WLB3]Topic: food insecurity during times of emergenciesAssertion/Claim/”So what?”: we need to prepare for it because these emergencies will continue to occur and most likely with more frequency.Articulate this thesis more clearly in the introduction.[WLB4]One current example that demonstrates the inadequacy of preparation is the COVID-19 outbreak.[WLB5]Start with this point, followed by the examples and then explanation of the problem.[WLB6]PIE – Point, Illustration (or supporting evidence), and Explanation (of the support and how it connects back to the point).[WLB7]Organize paragraphs around ONE point (or topic sentences). This paragraph is missing that point or topic sentence. [WLB8]Point of this paragraph?[WLB9]Incomplete sentence. Maybe delete?[WLB10]So the point you’re making in this paragraph is that we need agencies like the FAO to only help out during emergencies but to also ensure that communities that were experiencing food insecurities don’t become more impacted by the emergency.[WLB11]Don’t forget that periods goes AFTER the citation.[WLB12]How? What specific things do these agencies do?[WLB13]Who is this? Are they credible?[WLB14]Not sure what this means. Clarification is needed.[WLB15]Move this up to the beginning of the essay?[WLB16]So what you’re saying is that communities that benefited from food assistance recovered better?[WLB17]Redundant. Is this needed? If so, what new point or information are you offering?[WLB18]Okay, if this the solution, organize this next part into how each of these three steps will be achieved. Lastly, get into the benefits of following the three steps.[WLB19]Perhaps end with a return to the story/anecdote that the essay began with – something to think about in regards to COVID-19?